Last Updated: April 4, 2001


February 2001

January 2001

December 2000

November 2000

October 2000

September 2000

August 2000

July 2000

June 2000

May 2000

April 2000

March 2000


ETA Threatens to Target Tourists

3/30/01 - In an attempt at economic sabotage, the Basque terrorist group ETA issued a statement warning holiday travelers not to travel to Spanish resorts to avoid "undesirable consequences." The warning was issued less than two weeks after two car bomb incidents in Spanish beach resorts. On March 17, a car bomb exploded in the coastal town of Rosas, killing a police officer. Hours later police rendered a second car bomb safe in the town of Gandia.

Suicide Bomb Kills 3 in Israel

3/28/01 - Three people, including two teenagers, were killed and four wounded by a suicide bomb attack near an Israeli Army checkpoint in Central Israel. The third person killed is presumed to be the bomber.

Algerians Holding Abdelmajid Dahoumane

3/28/01 - Algerian authorities have announced that Abdelmajid Dahoumane, a fugitive alleged to have played a leading role in a millennium bomb plot in the United States, had been arrested in Algeria upon his arrival from Afghanistan. The statement did not provide any details of when he was arrested or the circumstances of his detainment. Dahoumane is wanted by US authorities for his participation in a plot to bomb several West Coast cities during millennium celebrations.

Algerian authorities have stated that Dahoumane will be tried in Algeria.

Wave of Bombings in Southern Russia

3/24/01 - On Saturday, a wave of three bombings struck public targets in separate Russian cities through the South of Russia. In Mineralnye Vodye, a booby-trapped car exploded killing 19 people and injured over 100. In Yessentuki, another car bomb wounded over 12 people. The third bomb in the republic of Karacheyevo-Cherkessia killed 2 police bomb experts while they were attempting to render the device safe.

While no one has claimed responsibility for these attacks, Russian authorities believe that rebel commander Khattab is behind the bombings.

ETA Car Bomb Kills Police Officer

3/18/01 - One police officer was killed and three civilians were wounded by a car bomb that exploded in the Spanish resort city of Rosas. According to reports, the car was parked outside a hotel and a warning call was placed. Police only has 25 minutes to locate the device and evacuate the area. It is believed that the police officer killed in the attack was still in the process of cordoning the area when the bomb exploded.

A second car bomb, parked near a beach in the city of Gandia, was safely disrupted by bomb disposal technicians.

Ed. Note: ETA is one example of a terrorist group that frequently uses deceptive warning calls in carefully planned operations to target or discredit police (similar to the PIRA/RIRA). See the sidebar "Bomb Threats as a Tactic of Malice" for more information on some of the deceptive warning strategies employed by contemporary terrorist groups.

Bomb Kills Two in Iraq

3/16/01 - Two people were killed and several wounded when a bomb placed between two buses exploded at a Baghdad bus station.

New TSWG/ATF Evacuation Distance Table Now Available

3/10/01 - The new evacuation distance card developed by the Technical Support Working Group is now available through the U.S. Government printing office. The new card specifies recommended evacuation distances for suspect bombs of varying sizes and provides guidelines for people located indoors (within designated refuge areas) and outdoors.

Suicide Bomber Kills Four in Netanya

3/04/01 - A man blew himself up as he mingled within a crowd of pedestrians in the Israeli coastal city of Netanya. At least four people were killed. This attack occurred only one day after the military wing of HAMAS announced that it had ten suicide bombers poised for strikes in Israel in order to undermine the incoming government of Ariel Sharon.

BBC Offices Targeted by Car Bomb

3/04/01 - Authorities suspect that the Real IRA (RIRA) was responsible for an early morning car bomb attack on the London offices of the BBC. According to reports, police initiated an immediate evacuation of the area following a telephone call warning of the bomb. The bomb (hidden in a taxi) detonated while bomb disposal technicians were attempting RSP. One man was injured in the attack.


Agent Type: Chemical
Code or Symbol: HD (United States)
CAS#: 505-60-2
Threat Classification: CD
U.S. Status: Currently Weaponized
Synonyms: Sulpher Mustard
Chemical Name: BIS (2-Chlorethly) Sulfide
Chemical Formula: (CL CH2 CH2)2S

Physiological Effects

Category/Effects: Blistering Agent, Incapacitant-Lethal


Effect Quantity Units Route Animal
ICT50 200 Mg-MIN/m3 Periocular Man
LCT50 1500 Mg-MIN/m3 Inhalation Man
ICT50 1000-2000 Mg-MIN/m3 Cutaneous Man
LCT50 10,000 Mg-MIN/m3 Cutaneous Man
MED 12-70 Mg-MIN/m3 Periocular Man
MED 50 Mg-MIN/m3 Cutaneous Man
LD50 7000 Mg/Man Percutaneous Man

Symptoms: Bronchitis, Conjunctivitis, Erythmea, Lesions, Pharyngitis, Pneumonia, Rhinitis, Tracheitis, Vesiculation
Rate of Action: Delayed (Hours toDays)
Routes of Absorption: Cutaneous, Ingestion, Inhalation, Periocular
Duration of Effect: 5 Days to 3 Months
Skin & Eye Toxicity: High-Eyes very susceptable to low concentrations


Protection: Mask and Protective Clothing
Decontamination: DS2 Solution, Supertropical Bleach, Household Bleach, M258A1 Kit, Decontamination Kit (Individual Equipment)
Detection: M18A2 Kit, M19 Kit, M256A1 Kit, M8 Paper

Physical Characteristics and Weaponization

See the Distilled Mustard record in the CABO Database system for information regarding density, disseminated forms, production purity, melting point, boiling point, molecular weight, aerosol stability/decay rate, half life in storage, vapor pressure, volatility, adjuvants, precursors, use, odor, disseminated modes, and all known munitions, countries, incidents, and facilities associated with this agent.


• A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation
U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice

• Significant Incidents of Political Violence Against Americans: 1998
(8.4 MB PDF) DS/DSS/ITA, US State Dept.

• COTS Blast Mitigation Resource Data Base
Blast Mitigation Action Group (maintained by TSWG)

Be sure to visit the Equipment Manufacturer's directory for new listings of manufacturers and distributors.

2001 Seminars and Workshops

Terrorism Utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction
March 23-25, 2001 (Hanover Township, PA)
April 27-29, 2001 (Bloomsburg, PA)
June 15-17, 2001 (Reading, PA)

A series of three one-day seminars designed to familiarize emergency responders and law enforcement personnel with issues pertaining to Weapons of Mass Destruction. Topics include large-scale explosive devices and chemical and biological WMD. Instructed by Craig Gundry, CPS and Dr. Harvey J. McGeorge. Hosted by the Pennsylvania Eastern Regional Counterterrorism Task Force. Free to all eligible police and emergency responders.

Registration is restricted to active Pennsylvania emergency responders and police. Click here for more details.

Bomb Countermeasures

August 13-14, 2001 (Clearwater, FL)

A two-day seminar adressing a wide range of bomb security related issues. Instructed by Craig Gundry, CPS. Hosted by S-2 Security and Intelligence Institute.

Contact us for more details:

Bomb Security Workshop

September 2001 (Nassau, Bahamas)

Due to the excellent response we received from our December program in Nassau, we will be holding another two-day Bomb Security workshop in September 2001. This seminar will be hosted again by Preventative Measures (Nassau, Bahamas). Watch for more details and a confirmed schedule in the near future.

Would you like to host a Bomb Countermeasures or WMD threat orientation in your city? If so, contact us: Tel. (727) 897-9600 / E-mail:

If you have news or an article that you would like us to post, email us at:




May 8-10, 2001
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration III
(Quantico, VA)

June 24-29, 2001
IABTI International TrainingConference
(Albequerque, NM)


Bomb Countermeasures/
WMD Seminar Series
(see bottom of page for more details)


March 23, 2001
Terrorism Utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction
(Hanover Township, PA)
Sponsored by PA Eastern Regional Counterterrorism Task Force

April 27, 2001
Terrorism Utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction
(Bloomsburg, PA)
Sponsored by PA Eastern Regional Counterterrorism Task Force

June 15, 2001
Terrorism Utilizing Weapons of Mass Destruction
(Reading, PA)
Sponsored by PA Eastern Regional Counterterrorism Task Force

August 13-14, 2001
Bomb Countermeasures
(Tampa, FL)
Hosted by S-2 Institute



Bomb Threats as a Tactic of Malice

Though most authentic bomb threats are delivered with the intention of sparing innocent lives, many terrorist groups employ deceptive bomb threats as part of carefully planned operations designed to achieve specific strategic goals. Following are descriptions of a few of the most common “malicious” strategies associated with bomb threats.

The “Mousetrap”

A number of terrorist groups have used threat calls to deliberately target police and military personnel. In this situation, the bomb threat is used specifically to lure bomb disposal technicians to the location of a boobytrapped or remote-controlled device. In the later case, a terrorist observing from a nearby location activates the device once bomb technicians or police have entered the “kill zone.”

This type of tactic has been used on numerous occasions in Spain and Northern Ireland.

False Bomb Location

The objective of this type of scenario is to cause maximum casualties (and public fear). In this situation, the bomber places the call with prior knowledge of how police or security will evacuate the area. A device is then concealed near the suspected assembly point or along the evacuation route. Once people have collected at the assembly point, the device explodes (activated by time delay or remote-control).

The 1998 bombing in Omagh, Northern Ireland was a dramatic example of this. In the Omagh incident, a caller told police that a bomb was located outside of the local courthouse. To verify his authenticity, the caller provided a code word known only to the IRA and British authorities. The police initiated an immediate evacuation of the surrounding area. Forty minutes later, as people began to assemble a safe distance away from the courthouse, approximately 500 pounds of explosive detonated in the evacuation zone--killing 28 people and injuring 220 others.

Short Warnings

In this scenario, the terrorists deliver a warning with full awareness that the police will not have sufficient time to evacuate the area, identify the device, and safely dispose of it. This places the police in a difficult position. Despite best efforts to respond, public attention after the attack easily shifts from the perpetrators to the police with speculations of "Why response wasn't more effective?". This increases public anxiety and erosion of the public's faith in the authorities. In addition to its psychological impact, short warnings increase risk to responders--particularly bomb technicians preparing or executing RSP.

As an operational tactic, short warnings have been used extensively by ETA and several other threat groups (including the PIRA).

Source: Bomb Countermeasures for Security Professionals, v2.0 (Lesson 5)